三泰虎

美国人指出的印度四大问题

如果你是一个印度 人,或者是印度人后裔,我必须首先提醒你:你不会喜欢你将要看到的东西。我的指责也许十分的严厉。但是就把我的话当作一个好朋友的真心的但是直白伤人的建 议吧。这些话来自一个对你们彻底坦白,对你没有任何其他企图的人。这些指责可以对不对喀拉拉邦和我没有去过的邦适用,但是,我有一种感觉,这些指责同样对 整个印度都适用,除了我提到过的喀拉拉邦。最后,在任何人指责我是一个白人文化至上主义者之前,让我告诉你:如果印度和印度人只想听到好话,那么我这么个 小人物也没资格说印度的坏话。

译者:植物蓝绿色
来源:百度印度吧 http://tieba.baidu.com/p/3590328314?see_lz=1
外文:http://www.seanpaulkelley.com/?p=620


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【译注:下面的帖子比较老,2009年的,但是当时引起了不少反响,所以我还是决定翻译一下。另外在2013年的时候作者又更新了一下自己的看法【基本没变】,翻译直接放在第一篇的后面。

从这篇帖子开始,我的翻译会开始进入印度深层次的问题。。。】

Reflectionson India
AndPeople Wonder Why The Lights Go Out In Delhi So Often?

对印度的深思

还有人们奇怪为什么德里的电停得这么频繁?

Ifyou are Indian, or of Indian descent, I must preface this post with aclear warning: you are not going to like what I have to say. Mycriticisms may be very hard to stomach. But consider them as the hardwords and loving advice of a good friend. Someone who’s beinghonest with you and wants nothing from you. These criticisms apply toall of India except Kerala and the places I didn’t visit, exceptthat I have a feeling it applies to all of India, except as Imentioned before, Kerala. Lastly, before anyone accuses me of WesternCultural Imperialism, let me say this: if this is what India andIndians want, then hey, who am I to tell them differently. Take whatyou like and leave the rest. In the end it doesn’t really matter,as I get the sense that Indians, at least many upper class Indians,don’t seem to care and the lower classes just don’t know anybetter, what with Indian culture being so intense and pervasive onthe sub-continent. But here goes, nonetheless.

Indiais a mess. It’s that simple, but it’s also quite complicated.I’ll start with what I think are India’s four major problems–thefour most preventing India from becoming a developing nation–andthen move to some of the ancillary ones.

First,pollution. In my opinion the filth, squalor and all around pollutionindicates a marked lack of respect for India by Indians. I don’tknow how cultural the filth is, but it’s really beyond anything Ihave ever encountered. At times the smells, trash, refuse andexcrement are like a garbage dump. Right next door to the Taj Mahalwas a pile of trash that smelled so bad, was so foul as to almostruin the entire Taj experience. Delhi, Bangalore and Chennai to alesser degree were so very polluted as to make me physically ill.Sinus infections, ear infection, bowels churning was an all to commonexperience in India. Dung, be it goat, cow or human fecal matter wascommon on the streets. In major tourist areas filth was everywhere,littering the sidewalks, the roadways, you name it. Toilets in themiddle of the road, men urinating and defecating anywhere, in broaddaylight. Whole villages are plastic bag wastelands. Roadsides arechoked by it. Air quality that can hardly be called quality. Far toomuch coal and far to few unleaded vehicles on the road. The measureshould be how dangerous the air is for one’s health, not how goodit is. People casually throw trash in the streets, on the roads. Theonly two cities that could be considered sanitary in my journey wereTrivandrum–the capital of Kerala–and Calicut. I don’t know whythis is. But I can assure you that at some point this pollution willcut into India’s productivity, if it already hasn’t. Thepollution will hobble India’s growth path, if that indeed is whatthe country wants. (Which I personally doubt, as India is far tooconservative a country, in the small ‘c’ sense.)

Thesecond issue, infrastructure, can be divided into four subcategories:roads, rails and ports and the electrical grid. The electrical gridis a joke. Load shedding is all too common, everywhere in India. Wideswaths of the country spend much of the day without the electricitythey actually pay for. With out regular electricity, productivity,again, falls. The ports are a joke. Antiquated, out of date, hardlyeven appropriate for the mechanized world of container ports, more inline with the days of longshoremen and the like. Roads are an equaldisaster. I only saw one elevated highway that would be considereddecent in Thailand, much less Western Europe or America. And Icovered fully two thirds of the country during my visit. There are sofew dual carriage way roads as to be laughable. There are no trafficlaws to speak of, and if there are, they are rarely obeyed, much lessenforced. A drive that should take an hour takes three. A drive thatshould take three takes nine.

Thebuses are at least thirty years old, if not older. Everyone in India,or who travels in India raves about the railway system. Rubbish. It’sawful. Now, when I was there in 2003 and then late 2004 it wasdecent.

Butin the last five years the traffic on the rails has grown so quicklythat once again, it is threatening productivity. Waiting in line justto ask a question now takes thirty minutes. Routes are routinely soldout three and four days in advance now, leaving travelers strandedwith little option except to take the decrepit and dangerous buses.

Atleast fifty million people use the trains a day in India. 50 millionpeople! Not surprising that waitlists of 500 or more people arecommon now. The rails are affordable and comprehensive but they areovercrowded and what with budget airlines popping up in India likeSadhus in an ashram the middle and lowers classes are left to dealwith the overutilized rails and quality suffers. No one seems to givea shit. Seriously, I just never have the impression that the Indiangovernment really cares. Too interested in buying weapons fromRussia, Israel and the US I guess.

The last major problem in India is an oldproblem and can be divided into two parts that’ve been two sides ofthe same coin since government was invented: bureaucracy andcorruption. It take triplicates to register into a hotel. To get aSIM card for one’s phone is like wading into a jungle of red-tapeand photocopies one is not likely to emerge from in a good mood, muchless satisfied with customer service. Getting train tickets is aterrible ordeal, first you have to find the train number, which takes30 minutes, then you have to fill in the form, which is far fromeasy, then you have to wait in line to try and make a reservation,which takes 30 minutes at least and if you made a single mistake onthe form back you go to the end of the queue, or what passes for aqueue in India. The government is notoriously uninterested in theproblems of the commoners, too busy fleecing the rich, or trying toget rich themselves in some way shape or form.

Takethe trash for example, civil rubbish collection authorities are toobusy taking kickbacks from the wealthy to keep their areas clean thatthey don’t have the time, manpower, money or interest in doingtheir job. Rural hospitals are perennially understaffed as doctorspocket the fees the government pays them, never show up at the ruralhospitals and practice in the cities instead.

Icould go on for quite some time about my perception of India and itsproblems, but in all seriousness, I don’t think anyone in Indiareally cares. And that, to me, is the biggest problem. India is tooconservative a society to want to change in any way. Mumbai, India’sfinancial capital is about as filthy, polluted and poor as the worstcity imaginable in Vietnam, or Indonesia–and being more pollutedthan Medan, in Sumatra is no easy task. The biggest rats I have everseen were in Medan!

Onewould expect a certain amount of, yes, I am going to use this word,backwardness, in a country that hasn’t produced so many NobelLaureates, nuclear physicists, imminent economists and entrepreneurs.But India has all these things and what have they brought back toIndia with them? Nothing. The rich still have their servants, thelower castes are still there to do the dirty work and so the countryremains in stasis. It’s a shame. Indians and India have manywonderful things to offer the world, but I’m far from sanguine thatIndia will amount to much in my lifetime.

Now,have at it, call me a cultural imperialist, a spoiled child of theWest and all that. But remember, I’ve been there. I’ve done it.And I’ve seen 50 other countries on this planet and none, not evenEthiopia, have as long and gargantuan a laundry list of problems asIndia does. And the bottom line is, I don’t think India reallycares. Too complacent and too conservative.

如果你是一个印度人,或者是印度人后裔,我必须首先提醒你:你不会喜欢你将要看到的东西。我的指责也许十分的严厉。但是就把我的话当作一个好朋友的真心的但是直白伤人的建议吧。这些话来自一个对你们彻底坦白,对你没有任何其他企图的人。这些指责可以对不对喀拉拉邦和我没有去过的邦适用,但是,我有一种感觉,这些指责同样对整个印度都适用,除了我提到过的喀拉拉邦。最后,在任何人指责我是一个白人文化至上主义者之前,让我告诉你:如果印度和印度人只想听到好话,那么我这么个小人物也没资格说印度的坏话。所以,只看你想看到的,忽略其他的。反正最后什么也不会改变,因为我有一种感觉:印度人,至少是很多上层的印度人,根本不在乎,而下层印度人啥也不知道,这都是因为印度的文话实在是在南亚太根深蒂固、流传甚广。但是,不论怎么,往下看吧。

印度一团糟。就这么简单,但是它又十分的复杂。 我会从我认为的印度的四个主要问题说起:这四个是印度无法发展的主要原因。 然后我会再说一些枝节。

首先,污染。从我的感觉来说,污秽、肮脏和无处不在的污染是最好的证据证明印度人根本不尊重他们自己的国家。我不知道这种肮脏和文化有多大的关联,但是这对我来说实在是前所未有的经历。德里,班加罗尔,金奈稍微好一点,是如此的肮脏,以至于让我真正的生病了。呼吸道感染,耳道感染,拉肚子是在印度旅行的正常体验。粪便,不管是羊的、牛的,还是人排出来的在街道上随处可见。做所有的主要旅游景点,污秽无处不在,在街道上乱扔垃圾,在铁轨上乱扔,你随便找个地方就有人在那乱扔垃圾。在我整个行程中,只有两个城市可以被认为卫生的是特里凡得琅--喀拉拉邦首府—和卡利卡特。我不知道印度为什么会如此得肮脏。但是我可以向你保证,这些污染会在某种程度上降低印度的产出,如果它还没有造成如此后果的话。污染会阻碍印度的发展,印度印度确实想要发展的话。(我个人觉得印度并不像发展,因为它实在是一个太保守落后的国家了)。

第二条,基础设施,可以分成四小点: 公路、铁路、港口和电网。电网就是个笑话。公路脱落实在是太常见了【用脱落而不是大坑,估计是指路都磨没了】,全印度都如此。海量的人交了电费但是整天都没电可用。没有点,产出进一步下降。港口是个笑话。过时的、应该退伍的、甚至根本不能用来作为商业世界的集装箱港,他们更应该是用在纤夫年代。公路是同样的灾难。我只看到过一条高架公路,在泰国那里还能算不错,在欧美就上不了档次了。要知道我已经把印度的2/3给逛了一遍。双程线公路是如此之少,我们想嘲笑一下都没机会。没有任何的交通规则,如果真有的话, 也基本没人遵守,更没人去管。一个小时能开下来的车程得开3个小时。三个小时的车程得用9个小时。

公共汽车至少用了30年了,如果不是更久的话。所有印度人,或者所有在印度旅行的人都狂吹这的铁路系统多么好。放屁。 这边铁路一塌糊涂。 我2003年和2004年访问印度的时候,那的铁路还可以。

但是在过去的5年中,乘坐铁路出行的人数上升的是如此之快, 现在,铁路的运作又一次要出问题了。 在车站想要问个问题就要排队30分钟。车票正常情况下3、4天前就售光了,然后出行者基本上只能乘坐破破烂烂、很不安全的长途汽车。

每天至少有5千万的印度人依靠火车出行。5千万人!所以排队买票排到500多人的后面是很正常的。火车出行便宜,但是车上非常拥挤,现在随着廉价航班在印度出现,那里的中产和底层民众只能去求助超负荷运转的铁路系统,而且这个系统质量还有问题。但是没有人关心这些。 严肃的说, 我从来没有感觉到印度的政府真的在乎。我猜这个政府正忙着从俄罗斯、以色列和美国买武器呢。

印度最后的一个主要问题是老生常谈了【其实是第三个问题,最后一个问题在后面】。这个问题可以分为两个方面,这两个方面其实都是一个问题的不同表现:官僚主义和腐败。你需要登记三次才能住在旅馆预订上房间。想要给你的手机买个SIM卡,你需要在官僚主义的丛林中苦苦挣扎,当你挣扎出来以后你的心情可想而知,不过他们的客户服务会让你更加的暴躁。 买火车票就是一场艰难的考验,首先你得先找到你要乘坐的火车班次,这个大概花费30分钟,然后你得填一张表格, 这个超级复杂,接下来你需要排队预订,这个至少要30分钟。如果你表格上面有一个地方填错了,那你就得重新排队。印度政府在对平民部负责任这一项目上臭名昭著,他们都忙着跪舔有钱人,或者想尽办法让自己变成有钱人。

以清理垃圾为例,国内的清理垃圾的机构都忙着领取有钱人的贿赂,去打扫富人社区,他们可没有时间、人力、钱或者意愿去履行他们的职责。乡村的医院常见缺少工作人员,因为医生从政府那里领到薪水后,根本不会去乡村医院,而是去城市里面挣钱了。

谈到印度的问题以及我对印度的印象的时候,我能够不停的说下去。但是虽然这些问题是如此的严重,我不认为印度人真的在乎。而这,在我看来,是最大的问题。印度实在是一个过于保守的社会,以至于他们自己排斥任何的改变。孟买, 印度的金融中心,他的肮脏、污染和贫穷程度与越南或者印尼的最烂城市媲美,而且在环境污染方面比印尼的麦丹还要糟糕,要知道能比在苏门答腊岛的麦丹还污染可是很不容易的。我一生所见过的最大的老鼠就在麦丹!

看到一个如此落后的国家,人们会自觉的认为这里不会有多少诺贝尔奖得主、核物理学家、著名经济学家和企业家。但是印度有上述的所有成就,但是这些人给印度回报了什么吗?完全没有。 富人手下还是一群奴仆,低种姓的人还在那干脏活,然后整个国家如死水般毫无变化。这是一个耻辱。 印度和印度人可以为世界提供很多的美好事物,但是我实在不认为在我有生之年印度会开窍。

想在,当你看过我的评价以后,你可以认为我是一个文化上的帝国主义者(充满偏见),一个发达国家里面被宠坏的小孩子,等等。但是记住,我去过印度。我有经历。而且我已经看过50个其他国家了,这其中没有一个国家,包括埃塞额比亚,有像印度这般多、这般严重的问题。最重要的是,我认为印度人根本不在乎。他们一个个都太自我感觉良好、太保守了。

August 25, 2013 Update: I have not returned toIndia since I wrote this in 2009–I hope to return in 2014 or 2015.That’s four years and a lot can change. That being said, thingschange slowly in India. I remember visiting a village in China in1999 and then returning in 2003. Vastly different place. And thenthere was my first visit to Delhi in 2003, my second in 2005 and mythird in 2009. Not much had changed, except parts of the subway wereopen. So, take my criticism with a grain of salt, as it might verywell be dated. Although I would bet money that Delhi is still just asfilthy as it ever was.

作者2013年更新:我2009年写下上面的文章以后,我就再也没去过印度了。我希望能在2014或者2015年再去一次印度。这是整整四年的时间,而很多东西可能都会改变了。即使如此,印度的改变非常慢。我记得我1999年去过中国的一个农村,然后2003年又去了一次,它变成一个完全不同的地方了。对比一下:我第一次去德里是2003年,第二次2005年,第三次2009年。基本没变。只有一些地铁段路开通。所以,读我的文章的时候带点批判性,因为它可能已经过期了。但是,我可以和你赌钱:德里还是想如它诞生那一刻般的污秽。

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