三泰虎

中国高铁:盛装打扮却无处出售?

刚下生产线,白色身体和蓝色边缘在冬日的阳光下闪闪发亮,穿过洞穴式的测试机库。工程师们正在进行最后的几道工序,子弹头列车发出嗡嗡的声响。这些时髦的火车很快就会承载着中国乘客行使哎世界上最长的高速铁路网络,十多年来这一直被认为是一个中国工程奇迹。但是对于拥有唐山工厂的北车集团副总裁余卫平来说,这样的进展还远远不够。余卫平表示,“我们希望尽快出口我们的高铁”。这是中国充满野心的政府领导的一项将中国高铁输送向世界各地的行动,从加利福尼亚到俄罗斯中部的喀山。

译者:亚历山大威廉
来源:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com/bbs/thread-335996-1-1.html
外文:http://news.yahoo.com/chinas-hig ... sell-134539931.html


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Fresh off the production line, with white livery and blue trim gleaming in the wintry sunlight that floods a cavernous test hangar, five of China’s state-of-the art bullet trains hum quietly as engineers put them through their final paces.

刚下生产线,白色身体和蓝色边缘在冬日的阳光下闪闪发亮,穿过洞穴式的测试机库。工程师们正在进行最后的几道工序,子弹头列车发出嗡嗡的声响。

These sleek trains will soon whisk Chinese passengers on the world's longest high speed rail network, built here in little over a decade, and considered a Chinese engineering miracle. But for Yu Weiping, a vice president of train-maker China CNR that owns the Tangshan factory, such progress is not enough.

这些时髦的火车很快就会承载着中国乘客行使哎世界上最长的高速铁路网络,十多年来这一直被认为是一个中国工程奇迹。但是对于拥有唐山工厂的北车集团副总裁余卫平来说,这样的进展还远远不够。

“We’ll be exporting our first train as soon as possible,” Mr. Yu says, describing an ambitious government-led drive to sell Chinese trains and track all over the world, from California to Kazan in central Russia.

余卫平表示,“我们希望尽快出口我们的高铁”。这是中国充满野心的政府领导的一项将中国高铁输送向世界各地的行动,从加利福尼亚到俄罗斯中部的喀山。

Except “as soon as possible” may not be all that soon, industry insiders say, for reasons ranging from finance to foreign relations.

“尽快”可能无法那么快,企业内部人士表示,原因很多样:从财政到外交关系。

At home, for example, Chinese state rail firms are accustomed to a free hand and almost unlimited credit. But in the outside world, the miracles that such advantages made possible are harder to conjure.

在国内,中国铁路公司习惯了“自由的手”(此处指代?)和几乎无限的信用。但是在外面,这些“优势”造就的奇迹很难想象。

Also consider that for all the enthusiastic official talk of bullet trains whizzing from Beijing to Moscow, or to Brussels – or of track to be laid in the US, Southeast Asia and Latin America – only one such plan has actually made it off the drawing board. A Chinese firm last August helped open 99 miles of high speed rail line in Turkey.

尽管热情的官员们认为中国的子弹头列车可以在北京、莫斯科、布鲁塞尔、美国、东亚和拉丁美洲上奔驰,但是事实上这一宏伟蓝图上迄今为止只成功了一处:去年八月,一家中国公司帮助土耳其开设了99英里的高速铁路。

Last November, China’s ambitious global vision for high speed rail took a nasty knock. Only days after Mexico signed a $3.75 billion contract with a Chinese-led consortium, President Enrique Peña Nieto canceled it amid allegations of corruption.

去年11月,中国雄心勃勃的高铁全球化蓝图受到了严重的打击。就在墨西哥和中国人领导的财团签署了一份价值37.5亿美元的合同后几天,墨西哥总统恩里克·培尼亚·涅托培尼亚就取消了中国首条高铁投标,因为其被认为存在腐败。

“China has a high speed rail system and operational experience, but it is still in the process of proving itself” abroad, says Liu Rongfang, a transport planning expert at the New Jersey Institute of Technology in Newark. “There are a lot of economic, political and cultural factors at play,” she says, that can complicate international deals.

纽瓦克新泽西理工学院的交通规划专家Liu Rongfang表示,“中国虽然有高速铁路系统和运作经验,但是还处于验证阶段”“有很多经济、政治、文化因素会使得其输出国外复杂化。”

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REVERSE ENGINEERING

逆向工程

China began its high speed rail adventure by buying trains and technology from foreign firms such as Japan’s Kawasaki, Germany’s Siemens, the French company Alstom and Bombardier in Canada. Chinese engineers then adapted and reverse-engineered that technology – a process known in China as “digestion and re-innovation” – to come up with locally produced systems.

中国的高速铁路启动主要是购买一些国外公司的技术,比如:日本川崎重工、德国西门子、法国阿尔斯通和加拿大庞巴迪等。中国工程师们将这些技术“消化、再创新”,使其适应中国当地的系统。

Since 2003, in a lightning national blitz, China has laid 10,000 miles of high speed track – more than half the world's total. The government plans another 5,000 miles by 2020.

从2003年开始,中国闪电般地铺设了10000英里的高速铁路,是世界高速铁路总长度的一半以上。中国政府计划在2020年前再铺设5000英里。

The effort did not go entirely smoothly. A signaling fault in 2011 caused a train crash near the city of Wenzhou that killed 40 passengers. A year later a five-mile viaduct collapsed. (A whistleblower blamed the construction company for cutting corners on its concrete; the government blamed geological factors.)

当然一切并没有那么顺利。2011年的错误信号导致了温州动车事故,使得40名乘客丧生。一年后一个五英里高架桥倒塌。(一个告密者指责偷工减料的混凝土建筑公司,政府却认为是地质因素。)

Yet overall China’s high speed rail safety record is comparable with that of other nations.

当然,总体来说,中国的高速铁路安全性相较其他国家还是比较好的。

Now, having swiftly created world-standard rail technology, Beijing has made sales abroad a top priority. Prime Minister Li Keqiang talks up Chinese expertise whenever he travels abroad. China's Eximbank dangles generous terms of finance to foreign customers.

现在,掌握了世界标准的铁路技术,中国将技术输出海外放在了首要位置。李克强总理出访时总要提到中国的高铁技术。中国的进出口银行为国外客户提供了非常慷慨的财政条件。

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PRESTIGE AND POLITICS

信誉和政治

Partly, the emphasis on high speed rail export is a matter of prestige. The Chinese are immensely proud of their achievement, as they showed when a high speed locomotive figured prominently in the Tiananmen Square parade marking the 60th anniversary of the Chinese revolution in 2009.

高铁出口很重要的一点是信誉。2009年中国革命60周年纪念,一架高速机车在天安门广场游行,中国人感到无比自豪。

Geopolitics also come into play. Beijing is pressing high speed rail projects with special gusto in Southeast Asia and Central Asia, two neighboring regions where China is keen to expand its influence and trade ties.

地缘政治也是影响要素。中国似乎特别热衷于在东南亚和中亚开设高铁线路,这是中国特别希望扩大影响力和贸易交流的两个地方。

But hard economics lie at the root of the campaign. China wants to move its manufacturing base up the value chain from cheap clothes and toys that launched its economic boom to a technology-driven future.

不过,经济才是这一举动的根本原因。中国希望将其制造业的价值链从便宜的衣服玩具转向技术驱动。

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