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相比中国,印度有哪些优势?

总的来说中国比印度有更多的优势。然而,印度在某些方面也有它的优势。混乱与多样性:在印度,我们天生就在混乱之中。如果我们不能适应就无法生存。为了能在印度各地畅行无阻,我们不得不学习多种语言。幸运的是,世界也是混乱 和多样的。因此,我们搬到波士顿和巴塞罗那学习和工作并不比到德里或加尔各答更加困难。所以印度人是怡然自乐的世界公民,也是最善于利用方兴未艾的全球化 的人。此外,印度人一直以来的“破解”精神正是程序员、设计师、企业家和任何现代的工人所需的。

译者:irlu
来源:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com/wtfy/15197.html
外文:http://www.quora.com/What-are-Indias-advantages-over-China


20141418692696

What are India's advantages over China?

相比中国,印度有哪些优势?

评论翻译



Balaji Viswanathan, 【赞(574)】
Overall China has plenty more advantages than India. However, ina few aspects, India has an edge.
Chaos and Diversity: InIndia, we were born in chaos. If we were not nimble/adapting, we wouldn'tsurvive. We had to learn multiple languages, just to cross a state withinIndia. Luckily for us, the world is also chaotic and diverse. Thus, moving toBoston or Barcelona for studies/work is not any more difficult than moving toDelhi/Kolkata. Thus, Indians are extremely comfortable globe-trotters and theones who are leveraging the recent globalization the most.
Also, what the Indians have been doing with Jugaad[hacking] is what's neededfor programmers, designers, entrepreneurs and any modern worker. In aglobalized world with emphasis on entrepreneurship everywhere, Indians have anedge due to the shit our politicians created and our adaptation to deal withthe shit.

总的来说中国比印度有更多的优势。然而,印度在某些方面也有它的优势。
混乱与多样性:在印度,我们天生就在混乱之中。如果我们不能适应就无法生存。为了能在印度各地畅行无阻,我们不得不学习多种语言。幸运的是,世界也是混乱和多样的。因此,我们搬到波士顿和巴塞罗那学习和工作并不比到德里或加尔各答更加困难。所以印度人是怡然自乐的世界公民,也是最善于利用方兴未艾的全球化的人。
此外,印度人一直以来的“破解”精神(注:指有能力找到并改进可绕开限制性法规或制度的方法)正是程序员、设计师、企业家和任何现代的工人所需的。在一个全球化的世界中到处都强调创业精神,这点印度人是有优势的,因为我们既适应也善于处理政客们带来的乌七八糟狗屁环境。

Conformity vs. Confrontation: China'shistoric strength is in its conformity. On various occasions "OneChina" roar would be spoken and people will become united. This strengthgot transferred to its manufacturing industries. If you are building roads andfactories, you have to conform to things. Indians are traditionallynon-confirming and argumentative. That runs in our blood and in our religions.This is why we were not able to build good roads or manufacturinginfrastructure. However, this core stress on "questioning" is helpfulin modern-day industries. For every Indian, there are 30 different viewpoints.

一致VS对抗:中国历史悠久的实力体现为其一致性。 “一个中国”的声音在各种场合如雷贯耳,人们也变得团结。这种优势转移到其制造业上。如果你正在修建公路或工厂,你必须遵守一些一致的规则。印度人没有这个传统,并且好争辩。这已经融入到我们的血液和宗教中。这就是为什么我们不能够建立良好的道路或制造业的基础设施。然而,最核心的“质疑”精神对现代产业是有帮助的。即使每一个印度人,也有30种不同的观点。

Sunrise/Sunset Industries: Lot of what China does is what West doesn't want to do - making toys and shoes. Lot of what India does - software, finance, marketing, pharma, consulting - is what West wants to do. Although China is strong in software and soft-aspects, India has a relatively high share of it as % of GDP and an edge due to its historic strengths. A decade ago, I wrote a blog post on this, that I believe is still relevant: India and China - A different viewpointIn short, India is going after the right things.

朝阳产业 VS 夕阳产业:很多中国做的东西是西方不想做的——比如玩具和鞋子。而印度做的东西是西方也想做的——比如软件、金融、营销、医药、咨询等。虽然中国在软件方面也很强。但由于传统的优势,软件在印度的GDP占比相对较高。十年前我写了博文《印度和中国——不同的视角》就指出这一点,我认为依然中肯。总而言之,印度走在正确的道路上。

Low hanging fruits: Chinahas gone to a stage where its long hanging development fruits have been pluckedand utilized. India has in plenty. 700 million Indians don't have a place toshit properly and 500 million Indians can't even write their name. What you seeas a problem is an opportunity for me. It is not a rocket science to makesomeone literate or build a toilet. Every other country has done it and we justhave to copy. With simple things like these we can maintain 10% GDP growthrate.

发展空间:中国发展的成果已经到了采摘和享用的阶段,成长空间有限。而印度则还有很大的空间。7亿印度人没有一个合适的地方拉屎,5亿印度人甚至不能写自己的名字。你看到的是问题,对我而言却是机会。又不需要研究火箭的科学家来教人识字和修建厕所,既然别的国家都做到了,我们只要山寨一下就可以了。光搞这种简单的事我们就可以维持10%的GDP增长率。

Political risks: If Indiawere not a democracy, it would have imploded. Both Hinduism and Indian versionof democracy have inbuilt unique stress release mechanisms. Many outsidersdon't understand it and often confounded by how we exist as one nation. It isour secret sauce. Although some Indians derisively call it as chalta hai [Let it be] attitude, this is howwe survived 1000s of years of hardships. Since we are able to release ourstress by ganging up on poor jokers like Rahul Gandhi [a 70kg stress ball], weare in a better position to avoid any future revolution/major political risks.Chinese citizens are getting increasingly angry at various things [being unableto easily vent it out on the political class] and there is a big political riskfor CCP and overall society.

政治风险:如果印度不是一个民主国家,它会早已土崩瓦解了。印度教和印度式民主形成了独特的压力释放(矛盾缓和)机制。很多外人不理解,也很迷惑我们是如何作为统一的国家而存在的。这是我们的秘密武器。虽然也有些印度人嘲笑叫它为“顺其自然”的态度,正是因为如此我们历经千年艰辛,依然顽强生存 。我们能通过联合反对像拉胡尔·甘地这样的卑鄙小丑来释放压力(缓和矛盾),我们正处于一个有利的位置,可避免将来革命或重大的政治风险。中国民众对很多事情多变得越来越愤怒(在政治课上并不能轻易发泄出来),GCD和整个社会都面临重大政治风险。

Geopolitical risks: China isa dragon. It is ambitious and sooner or later it will start to dominate. Thatcarries a huge geopolitical risk. A confrontation with Vietnam, Japan, Taiwanor US could impact its trade-centric economy. India is an elephant. It isfairly comfortable being a giant, feeding on just grass. Most of us have don'twant India to have world domination plans. If we can get to the level ofprosperity at the time of Ashoka, Raja Raja or Samudragupta, we are happy.
Strategic position: Indiahas a few more strategic advantages than China by virtue of its location. IndianOcean in a very critical pathway for global energy and other commodities. Indiais the only major power in the Ocean. CanIndia Blockade China?Chinaknows this and is building up its bases in Indian Ocean via Pakistan, Myanmaretc.

地缘政治风险:中国是一条龙。他雄心勃勃,迟早会开始统治世界。这个会带来巨大的地缘政治风险。与越南、日本、台湾或美国的对抗可能会影响其外贸型经济。印度是大象,作为一种身形巨大的食草动物,我们怡然自得。我们大多数人不希望印度拥有统治世界的企图。如果我们能达到像阿育王、拉贾拉贾或沙摩陀罗·笈多时代的繁荣水平,我们心满意足。

战略定位:凭借优越地理位置,印度有几个超过中国的战略优势。印度洋是全球能源和其他大宗商品关键通道。而印度是印度洋唯一的强权。中国也清楚这一点,并通过巴基斯坦,缅甸等正在印度洋中修建自己的基地。

 
Tristan Fernandes
Let's get the obvious ones out of the way first.
- Freedom: I can say what I want, who thefuck I want against and not get arrest. Or, if any one tries to have mearrested, there is a legal process to get me the fuck out of jail.
Also, many point out that China is highly industrailised. What no one tells youis that farmers were picked up, their land taken, converted into industries andthey were made to work there. Obviously an over-simplified point, but a farmerwho was years knows only farming is forced to give that up and become aindustrial worker. It is not fair to him.
On the other side, we have India, specifically take a look at
Singur Tata Nano controversy. Becauseof problems between the government and farmers, industries can't be easily setup in the country.

我首先从显而易见的方面说起。
自由:我想说啥就说啥,我他妈的想反对谁就反对谁,也不会被抓起来。或者任何人想抓我,也有法律程序保障我从操蛋的监狱出来。
此外,许多人告诉你中国已经高度工业化。但是没有人告诉你的是-——农民被赶走,土地被掠夺,转为工业用地,他们被迫在那里工作。这虽是一个简化的观点,但一个数十年来只知道种地的农民被迫放弃种地,并成为产业工人,这对他们来说是不公平的。另一方面,在我们印度,你可以看一下《辛格乌尔塔塔争议》这篇文章,由于政府与农民之间的问题,工业在我们国家不容易建立起来。

- Democracy: I choose my leaders. If I don't like them I can write a letter, communicate with the media, write a blog. Basically, get the word out why I have a problem against the leader. Everything political in China is censored. An individual can't speak openly about politics. Also, Chinese Communism is a freaking farce. They are more like Capatalist dictators. Indian Democracy is as real as it can get.

皿煮:我能选我们的国家领导人。如果我不喜欢他们,我可以写信与媒体交流,也可以写博客。基本上我能表达出我不喜欢他们的原因。
在中国一切有关政治的东西都会被审查。个人不能公开谈论政治。
当然,中国的共产主义也是一个虚无的笑话。他们更像是专制资本主义。印度皿煮则是真实的,因为人人可以得到。

Media Freedom: Though thefreedom of India Media does not rank high in in the Press Freedom Index, I think IndianMedia is quite free. The current rank is 140, but in 2002 it was 80, this isobviously a problem. I think it rises from the odd instances of journalists,cartoonist and netizens being arrested or killed. I say odd, coz it does nothappen very often. However, when it does, the media most of the times is up inarms.
China, on the hand, (and in my opinion a very smart move) doesnot allow media freedom. The media is controlled by Xinhua. It not onlycontrols the information in China, but information going out of China to therest of the world.

媒体自由:虽然印度媒体的自由度在全球新闻自由指数中排名并不高,我仍认为印度媒体是很​​自由的。目前的排名是140,而在2002年为80,这显然是一个问题。我觉得排名升高是因为一些奇怪的事件发生,比如记者、漫画家和网民的被捕或被杀。我说奇怪,是因为它不会经常发生。尽管如此,当它发生时,媒体大部分的时间里还是会拿起手中武器支持。在中国,则完全不同,(在我看来是一个非常聪明的举动)不允许媒体自由。媒体是新华社控制。它不仅控制着国内的资讯,也控制着传到外面世界的资讯。

Young Population: Like Aditya Gaonkar has already pointed out, young population is an advantage to India. However, we are still struggling to completely utilise this potential because of poor educational infrastructure. Additionally, I'm not sure if it as advantage over China. They too have a young population. English Education:One of the reasons India has becomes such a huge outsourced country is because a large population is educated and can speak fairly well English. Because of outsourcing, the Indian IT sector has got a huge boost. China does not have the English advantage, though the number of Call Centres are growing in the country.
Economy: I don't claim to a financial expert or economist, but I've read a bit. Though China has a large growth rate (7.60), I've heard a few experts call this some sort of bubble. They accuse China of growing to fast and such growth rate is not sustainable.

年轻的人口:像阿迪亚高卡已经指出的那样,年轻的人口是印度优势。但是因为教育基础设施落后,我们仍然在努力充分利用这一潜力。此外,我不知道这对中国是否是优势。他们也有很多年轻的人口。

英语教育:印度能成为这样一个庞大的外包国家其中一个原因是大量人口受英语教育,并且可以说不错的英语。由于外包业务,印度IT行业已经得到了巨大的推动。中国没有英文的优势,虽然这个国家的呼叫中心的数量也在不断增长。

经济:我没说我是金融专家或经济学家,但我读了相关的文章。虽然中国拥有很高的增长率( 7.6%) ,我听说过一些专家称之为某种程度上的泡沫。他们指责中国的增速太快,而这种增速是不可持续的。

Space Technology: China maybe know for its cheap tech, but as of now, India holds the record for the cheapest space launch.
Corruption: Do not be fooled. China, just like India has corruption too. It is just that Chinese are good at being secretive and corruption is literary under layers of carpet. It is a big issue among the public of China. Also, hunting for corruption is a show to the public.
Diplomacy: There are key difference between India's and China's diplomacy which lends advantages and disadvantages.
- India: India, on a large scale, has verygood relations with most countries - Japan, Russia, USA, Nepal, Bangladesh,Iran, Afghanistan. India is seen as a model democratic country that is goingwell despite it different cultures.
Japan, ASEAN, USA, Vietnam and India have kind of teamed to counter China.
The negative note, is that India is many times very indecisive in its foreignpolicy. this is why many of their UN votes are abstained.
- China: China is willing to deal with any country. Whether it isPakistan, Sri Lanka, Iran, Burma, Nigeria etc. They don't care about humanrights violation, corruption charges against the leader etc. They do notinterfere with that countries internal affairs. They are non-judgmental. Sowhile Western countries posts sanctions and trouble countries on human rightsand other issues, China does not give a damn. They invest money to develop thatcountries resources.
These economic decisions prove to advantages political repercussions.

太空科技:也许中国以价廉的高科技著称,但截至目前,印度拥有最便宜的太空发射的记录。

腐败:不要上当。中国,也像印度一样腐败。只不过中国人擅长隐瞒,腐败是桌子下面完成的。腐败在中国公众中是一个很大的问题。此外,追捕腐败分子只是一个向公众展示的表演秀。

外交:印度和中国外交政策的显著差异导致它们有不同的优劣:

—印度:大体上来讲,印度与大多数国家的关系非常好——日本、俄罗斯、美国、尼泊尔、孟加拉国、伊朗、阿富汗等。尽管它们文化不同,但因印度被视为民主国家典范,因而关系良好。日本、东盟、美国、越南和印度在某种程度上联手对抗中国。印度也有不好的一面,其外交政策很多时候非常优柔寡断。这就是为什么他们在联合国大会上投了很多弃权票。

—中国:中国乐意与任何国家打交道。无论是巴基斯坦、斯里兰卡、伊朗、缅甸还是尼日利亚等,他们不关心人权是否被侵犯,也不关心领导人是否遭受遭腐败指控等。他们不会干涉各国内政,他们不做是非判断。因此,当西方国家对其他国家就人权和其他问题上发起制裁时,中国根本鸟都不鸟。他们继续投入资金,以开发该国资源。这些经济决策被证明是其政治影响的优势。

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