What are India's advantages over China?
Balaji Viswanathan, 【赞（574）】
Overall China has plenty more advantages than India. However, ina few aspects, India has an edge.
Chaos and Diversity: InIndia, we were born in chaos. If we were not nimble/adapting, we wouldn'tsurvive. We had to learn multiple languages, just to cross a state withinIndia. Luckily for us, the world is also chaotic and diverse. Thus, moving toBoston or Barcelona for studies/work is not any more difficult than moving toDelhi/Kolkata. Thus, Indians are extremely comfortable globe-trotters and theones who are leveraging the recent globalization the most.
Also, what the Indians have been doing with Jugaad[hacking] is what's neededfor programmers, designers, entrepreneurs and any modern worker. In aglobalized world with emphasis on entrepreneurship everywhere, Indians have anedge due to the shit our politicians created and our adaptation to deal withthe shit.
Conformity vs. Confrontation: China'shistoric strength is in its conformity. On various occasions "OneChina" roar would be spoken and people will become united. This strengthgot transferred to its manufacturing industries. If you are building roads andfactories, you have to conform to things. Indians are traditionallynon-confirming and argumentative. That runs in our blood and in our religions.This is why we were not able to build good roads or manufacturinginfrastructure. However, this core stress on "questioning" is helpfulin modern-day industries. For every Indian, there are 30 different viewpoints.
Sunrise/Sunset Industries: Lot of what China does is what West doesn't want to do - making toys and shoes. Lot of what India does - software, finance, marketing, pharma, consulting - is what West wants to do. Although China is strong in software and soft-aspects, India has a relatively high share of it as % of GDP and an edge due to its historic strengths. A decade ago, I wrote a blog post on this, that I believe is still relevant: India and China - A different viewpointIn short, India is going after the right things.
朝阳产业 VS 夕阳产业：很多中国做的东西是西方不想做的——比如玩具和鞋子。而印度做的东西是西方也想做的——比如软件、金融、营销、医药、咨询等。虽然中国在软件方面也很强。但由于传统的优势，软件在印度的GDP占比相对较高。十年前我写了博文《印度和中国——不同的视角》就指出这一点，我认为依然中肯。总而言之，印度走在正确的道路上。
Low hanging fruits: Chinahas gone to a stage where its long hanging development fruits have been pluckedand utilized. India has in plenty. 700 million Indians don't have a place toshit properly and 500 million Indians can't even write their name. What you seeas a problem is an opportunity for me. It is not a rocket science to makesomeone literate or build a toilet. Every other country has done it and we justhave to copy. With simple things like these we can maintain 10% GDP growthrate.
Political risks: If Indiawere not a democracy, it would have imploded. Both Hinduism and Indian versionof democracy have inbuilt unique stress release mechanisms. Many outsidersdon't understand it and often confounded by how we exist as one nation. It isour secret sauce. Although some Indians derisively call it as chalta hai [Let it be] attitude, this is howwe survived 1000s of years of hardships. Since we are able to release ourstress by ganging up on poor jokers like Rahul Gandhi [a 70kg stress ball], weare in a better position to avoid any future revolution/major political risks.Chinese citizens are getting increasingly angry at various things [being unableto easily vent it out on the political class] and there is a big political riskfor CCP and overall society.
Geopolitical risks: China isa dragon. It is ambitious and sooner or later it will start to dominate. Thatcarries a huge geopolitical risk. A confrontation with Vietnam, Japan, Taiwanor US could impact its trade-centric economy. India is an elephant. It isfairly comfortable being a giant, feeding on just grass. Most of us have don'twant India to have world domination plans. If we can get to the level ofprosperity at the time of Ashoka, Raja Raja or Samudragupta, we are happy.
Strategic position: Indiahas a few more strategic advantages than China by virtue of its location. IndianOcean in a very critical pathway for global energy and other commodities. Indiais the only major power in the Ocean. CanIndia Blockade China?Chinaknows this and is building up its bases in Indian Ocean via Pakistan, Myanmaretc.
Let's get the obvious ones out of the way first.
- Freedom: I can say what I want, who thefuck I want against and not get arrest. Or, if any one tries to have mearrested, there is a legal process to get me the fuck out of jail.
Also, many point out that China is highly industrailised. What no one tells youis that farmers were picked up, their land taken, converted into industries andthey were made to work there. Obviously an over-simplified point, but a farmerwho was years knows only farming is forced to give that up and become aindustrial worker. It is not fair to him.
On the other side, we have India, specifically take a look at
Singur Tata Nano controversy. Becauseof problems between the government and farmers, industries can't be easily setup in the country.
- Democracy: I choose my leaders. If I don't like them I can write a letter, communicate with the media, write a blog. Basically, get the word out why I have a problem against the leader. Everything political in China is censored. An individual can't speak openly about politics. Also, Chinese Communism is a freaking farce. They are more like Capatalist dictators. Indian Democracy is as real as it can get.
Media Freedom: Though thefreedom of India Media does not rank high in in the Press Freedom Index, I think IndianMedia is quite free. The current rank is 140, but in 2002 it was 80, this isobviously a problem. I think it rises from the odd instances of journalists,cartoonist and netizens being arrested or killed. I say odd, coz it does nothappen very often. However, when it does, the media most of the times is up inarms.
China, on the hand, (and in my opinion a very smart move) doesnot allow media freedom. The media is controlled by Xinhua. It not onlycontrols the information in China, but information going out of China to therest of the world.
Young Population: Like Aditya Gaonkar has already pointed out, young population is an advantage to India. However, we are still struggling to completely utilise this potential because of poor educational infrastructure. Additionally, I'm not sure if it as advantage over China. They too have a young population. English Education:One of the reasons India has becomes such a huge outsourced country is because a large population is educated and can speak fairly well English. Because of outsourcing, the Indian IT sector has got a huge boost. China does not have the English advantage, though the number of Call Centres are growing in the country.
Economy: I don't claim to a financial expert or economist, but I've read a bit. Though China has a large growth rate (7.60), I've heard a few experts call this some sort of bubble. They accuse China of growing to fast and such growth rate is not sustainable.
经济：我没说我是金融专家或经济学家，但我读了相关的文章。虽然中国拥有很高的增长率（ 7.6%） ，我听说过一些专家称之为某种程度上的泡沫。他们指责中国的增速太快，而这种增速是不可持续的。
Space Technology: China maybe know for its cheap tech, but as of now, India holds the record for the cheapest space launch.
Corruption: Do not be fooled. China, just like India has corruption too. It is just that Chinese are good at being secretive and corruption is literary under layers of carpet. It is a big issue among the public of China. Also, hunting for corruption is a show to the public.
Diplomacy: There are key difference between India's and China's diplomacy which lends advantages and disadvantages.
- India: India, on a large scale, has verygood relations with most countries - Japan, Russia, USA, Nepal, Bangladesh,Iran, Afghanistan. India is seen as a model democratic country that is goingwell despite it different cultures.
Japan, ASEAN, USA, Vietnam and India have kind of teamed to counter China.
The negative note, is that India is many times very indecisive in its foreignpolicy. this is why many of their UN votes are abstained.
- China: China is willing to deal with any country. Whether it isPakistan, Sri Lanka, Iran, Burma, Nigeria etc. They don't care about humanrights violation, corruption charges against the leader etc. They do notinterfere with that countries internal affairs. They are non-judgmental. Sowhile Western countries posts sanctions and trouble countries on human rightsand other issues, China does not give a damn. They invest money to develop thatcountries resources.
These economic decisions prove to advantages political repercussions.