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中国将如何追踪和击落美国最新的隐形战机

对于五角大楼最好的战机来说,中国航站上展出的一些先进的导弹和一款先进的雷达可能意味着巨大的威胁。以前,在表演魔术时,魔术师如果没有穿着惊艳的助手的帮忙,那么这个魔术就是不完整的。魔术女郎所扮演的角色不仅仅是被电锯锯成两半,其作用还包括了吸引男性观众的注意力,这样一来,魔术师的表演就得以顺利进行下去。而在上个月的珠海航展上,这就是我们需要记住的经验。珠海航展是中国国内唯一一个航空防务贸易展览,每两年举办一次。

译者:菊花与枪
来源:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.com/bbs/thread-327429-1-1.html
外文:http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/12/02/how-china-will-track-and-kill-america-s-newest-stealth-jets.html


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How China Will Track—and Kill—America’sNewest Stealth Jets

中国将如何追踪和击落美国最新的隐形战机

A gang of advanced missiles and ableeding-edge radar unveiled at a Chinese air show could mean big trouble forthe Pentagon’s best fighters.

对于五角大楼最好的战机来说,中国航站上展出的一些先进的导弹和一款先进的雷达可能意味着巨大的威胁。

Once, no magic act was complete without themagician’s revealingly dressed assistant. Her job was not merely to be sawn inhalf but to dominate the mostly male audience’s attention at moments when afocus on the whereabouts of the rabbit might blow the gaff.

以前,在表演魔术时,魔术师如果没有穿着惊艳的助手的帮忙,那么这个魔术就是不完整的。魔术女郎所扮演的角色不仅仅是被电锯锯成两半,其作用还包括了吸引男性观众的注意力,这样一来,魔术师的表演就得以顺利进行下去。

That was a useful lesson to bear in mind atlast month’s Zhuhai air show—China’s only domestic air and defense trade show,held once every other year.

而在上个月的珠海航展上,这就是我们需要记住的经验。珠海航展是中国国内唯一一个航空防务贸易展览,每两年举办一次。

If anything at Zhuhai was wearing fishnetsand high heels, it was the Shenyang FC-31 stealth fighter, which resembles atwin-engine version of America’s newest stealth jet, the F-35 Joint StrikeFighter. But the real tricks lay in Beijing’s growing family of advancedmissiles and radars.

此次珠海航展上真正惹人关注的是沈阳飞机制造公司的FC-31隐形战机,这是一款类似于美国F-35的双引擎战机。但是此次航展上真正的重头戏是中国不断增加的先进导弹和雷达。

The FC-31 prototype was hidden except whenit was flying, and not much detail was available. But the display was notablefor the eruptions of smoke from the engines, most likely Russian RD-93s.

FC-31战机一般不为人所见,只有在飞行时才露一下脸,而且这款战机的细节不为人所知。但是在飞行表演时给人最深的印象却是引擎中喷射出来的黑烟,很像俄罗斯的RD-93。

That is important, because until Chinabuilds its own fighter engines it cannot build stealth fighters withoutapproval from Vladimir Putin’s desk. That includes the Chengdu J-10B, China’smost modern, in-production fighter, or its bootleg versions of Russia’s SukhoiFlanker fighter family.

这是非常重要的,因为在中国建造自己的战机引擎之前,如果没有普京的批准,中国是无法建造自己的隐形战机的。这就包括成都的J-10B——中国最现代化的正在生产中的战机,或者说这是一款模仿俄罗斯苏霍伊战机家族的仿制品。

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China says it’s working on indigenousfighter and trainer engines, but the samples on show were exactly the same asthose seen two years ago.

中国说正在研发自主的战机和训练机引擎,但是此次航展上的样品和两年前的一模一样。

What was new and important on the Chinesemilitary’s outdoor display line at Zhuhai was a mix of mature and newtechnology. And by “mature” I mean the 1950s-design Xian H-6M bomber, with something suspiciously like a WorldWar II Norden bombsight visible through the windows of the bombardier station.But the bomber was surrounded by guided weapons, some seen for the first timein public. The same went for the somewhat more modern JH-7 light bomber.

此次航展上,中国在场外所展示的重要和新颖的产品中就包括了一些成熟的新技术。说到“成熟”,我指的是西安公司在1950年代设计的H-6M轰炸机,通过投弹手位置的窗户貌似可以看到里面有一个类似二战时期诺顿投弹瞄准器式的东西。但是这款轰炸机被精确制导武器围绕着,其中的某些好像还是第一次公之于众。更加现代的JH-7轰炸机貌似也是这样的情况。

Zhuhai was full of new missile hardware,from the 3 1/2-ton CX-1 ramjet-powered anti-ship and land-attack missile downto the QW-19 manportable air-defense system. (China’s military believes inthese small air-defense missiles, both in their classic standalone form andintegrated into small mobile systems.)

此次珠海航展上出现了很多新型的导弹硬件,包括3.5吨的CX-1冲压式喷气反舰和陆地攻击导弹和QW-19单人携带式防空系统。(中国军队喜欢这些小型的防空导弹,包括经典的单人携带式导弹或者整合成小型的移动系统。)

Not many of those missiles wereindividually surprising. The CX-1 is different in small details from theRussian-Indian BrahMos but very similar in specifications. Two-stageshort-range surface-to-air missiles borrow the concept invented for Russia’sKBM Tunguska and Pantsyr systems, and so on.

这些导弹中的许多都并不让人感到惊讶。CX-1与俄罗斯印度的布拉莫斯只有细节上的些许差异,但是在规格上非常类似。中国的二级短程地对空导弹的概念也是借用了俄罗斯的KBM Tunguska 和 Pantsyr系统,等等。

What is impressive, however, is how many ofthe new Chinese missiles there are, and how they fit together.

然而,真正让人印象深刻的是中国的新型导弹到底有多少,以及这些导弹如何相互适用的。

One visible trend is the re-use ofcomponents to meet different mission needs. Since the CM-400AKG air-to-surfacemissile appeared at 2012’sedition of the Zhuhai show, it has gathered a lot of attention as ahigh-supersonic anti-ship weapon. This year, the exhibit strongly suggestedthat it shares its solid rocket motor and warhead with the surface-to-surfaceSY400 ballistic missile, and a passive radar seeker with the new B611MRsemi-ballistic anti-radiation missile. The B611MR, in turn, has a common motorand controls to the 175-mile-range M20 GPS/inertially guided missile—China’sequivalent to Russia’s Iskander—and both are intended to use the same mobilelauncher and command-and-control system as the CX-1. Lots of interchangeableparts: That is how China can roll out so many missile types so quickly.

其中一个可见的趋势是部件的再次利用以满足不同的任务需求。自从CM-400AKG空对地导弹在2012年珠海航展上出现以来,作为一款高超音速反舰武器,它获得了人们很多的关注。今年,这款武器的展示强烈的表明其所装备的固体火箭发动机以及弹头和SY400空对空弹道导弹是一样的,而其装备的被动雷达导引头和新型的B611MR半弹道反辐射导弹是一样的。而B611MR有的只是一款普通的发动机,控制的是175英里航程的M20 GPS/惯性制导导弹——相当于俄罗斯的伊斯坎德——两款武器将使用CX-1所使用的同款机动发射装置。很多部件都是可互换的:这就是中国能在如此短的时间内推出这么多导弹的原因所在了。

A “system of systems” approach was evidentin the biggest thinly coded message at Zhuhai. That was the People’s LiberationArmy’s outdoor lineup of air-defense hardware, centered on the gigantic JH-27A VHF activeelectronically scanned array radar—the first of its type in service anywhere,if Chinese officials are telling the truth. Such radars are designed to track stealthy targets. The radar’s antenna,almost 100 feet tall, towered over the rest of the exhibits. Just to the leftof it were smaller Aesas, one operating in UHF and the other in the centimetricS-band: that is, complementary sensors with progressively higher resolution,cued by the VHF radar to track stealthy targets, accurately enough to engagethem with missiles.

这种“系统之系统”的方法可以很明显的在此次航展上看出来。那就是解放军在此次航展展馆外所展示的一系列防空武器,其中的重头戏是巨型的JH-27A甚高频的主动电子扫描阵列雷达——在全世界服役的同类型产品中中国的这一款是首款,如果中国官员说的是实话的话。这种雷达是用来追踪隐形目标的。100英尺高的雷达天线傲视群雄。位于其左边的是更小一点的主动电子扫描阵列雷达,其中一个是超高频的,另外一个是S波段的:也就是说,这是一种分辨率会渐渐提高的补充性质的感应器,在甚高频雷达的指引下追踪隐形目标,其精确度足以用来引导飞弹。

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At a conference in London the followingweek, a senior retired U.S. Air Force commander pooh-poohed counterstealthefforts. I don’t know where such confidence originates, because nothing likethe JH-27A and its companionradars exists in the West, and so we know little of how they work.

在随后一周于伦敦举办的一次会议上,美国空军一名退役的高级指挥官对抗隐形技术的努力表示了藐视。我不知道这样的自信来自哪里,因为目前西方还不存在类似JH-27A及其同伴雷达这样的雷达系统,所以我们不知道这种雷达是怎么运作的。

Further down the line were three vehicles—aradar/command vehicle, a short-to-medium-range LY-60D/HQ-6D surface-to-airmissile, and a Norinco LD-2000 seven-barrel 30-mm gun. Like some gun systemsused by the West, the LD-2000 is basically atruck-mobile version of a gun system carried by ships to shoot down incomingmissiles. But the West uses those systems to defend forward operating bases inIraq and Afghanistan from rockets and mortars, and China doesn’t need theLD-2000 for that.

还有就是另外三个载具——一辆雷达/指挥车,一枚中短程LY-60D/HQ-6D地对空导弹,以及一支中国北方工业公司的LD-2000七管30毫米枪炮。就像西方所使用的某些枪炮系统一样,LD-2000基本上是一种卡车机动的枪炮系统,由舰船携带,用以击落来犯的导弹。但是西方利用这种系统来防卫在伊拉克和阿富汗的作战基地避免遭到火箭弹和迫击炮的袭击,而中国并不需要利用LD-2000来这么做。

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