中国造PK印度造。印度人参观中国玩具厂。三泰虎9月7日译文，印度女自由撰稿人Ashali Varma：20年前，我有幸看到中国是如何激励劳动力市场的，而当时还是她正成为 世界工厂之际。我参观了一个小镇上香港公司的玩具厂，工人大多数是妇女和（十几岁的）女孩。她们为美国市场生产软玩具，从米老鼠到兔宝宝，再到提线木偶。 玩具的质量还不错。这次参观显示，工人大多数是十几岁的女孩，她们大多数拿着一个月100元的工资，住在通风的宿舍里，每周工作5天，周六上半天。我原本 期望看到的是一家血汗工厂，可是女孩工作的车间很大，还带有大大的窗户，光线和空气充足。小镇很漂亮，至少当时没有被污染。
外文标题：Made in India versus China
Twenty years ago I had the opportunity to see how the labour market in China was incentivised and this was just at the cusp of it becoming the factory to the world. I visited a toy factory in a small town owned by a Hong Kong company, staffed mostly by women and girls. They were making soft toys for the US market from Mickey Mouse to Bugs Bunny and the Muppets. The quality was good and my tour of the factory revealed that the workers were mostly teenage girls who were given Yuan 100 a month and they stayed in airy dormitories and worked five days a week with Saturday as a half day. I had expected to see a sweat shop but the room where the girls worked was large with big windows with enough light and air. The town was beautifully laid out and at least in those days it was not polluted.
An interesting interview followed, with my Chinese friend, who had taken me there unsupervised, doing the translating. I asked one of the seamstresses where she had come from. She said her family were farmers in a small village and they could not make ends meet so she had come here to work. She said the money was good — this was in 1994 — and that she went home once a year during the Chinese New Year. On the weekends the company would arrange a variety of activities, including basketball, badminton, management classes and outings.
My next visit was to a village where in large sheds an elderly Chinese man was copying Ming and Ch’ing Dynasty furniture to supply to the West Coast of the US, where he had connections and visited often. Since again the interview had to be translated, I asked him if he found it difficult to do business in the West as he did not know English. “No problem,” he said, in Chinese, “my contacts there do all the talking.”
When I returned to India, I asked my friends who were in garment exports how the labour in our country compared to what I had seen. They told me that the tailors were skilled but had no concept of delivery schedules and skipped work for weddings, births, deaths and religious holidays! Since they went to respective villages, sometimes for weeks, deliveries to Europe and the US were often delayed or new labour had to be quickly trained, which often led to flaws in the product — another problem unacceptable to any importing countries.
China does not have such issues; workers are mostly given only the 10 days of the Chinese New Year off, though of late they do have a high attrition rate. In addition, the government not only developed large export zones, but also created the environment to enable businesses — this helped China to take the lead. Add to this good highways, no shortage of electricity, and an abundant supply of disciplined labour and you have an unbeatable formula.
This brings me to the basic point of how far we have to go to achieve what Prime Minister Modi wants: get back the Made in India label with quality products, skilled labour and efficient factories. I know this can be done as I remember our homes being cooled by Usha fans— Made in India and not once in 40 years was there a complaint.
Today, Usha or Crompton fans – made in China, are giving trouble, endlessly! I am told fans are no longer made here. The same can be said of most products bought in the market today. In fact, almost everything electronic is made in China, imported to India and sold under Indian brand names such as Crompton, Usha, Micromax cellphones etc. The economies of scale in China are such that a single factory making compressors produces more than all the factories in India put together!