从这里了解印度人对中国的看法

联合国:三分之二以上印度人口仍然依赖糞制燃料

2014-07-06 12:55 52个评论 字号:

根据一份联合国的报告,在印度10亿之巨的人口中,三分之二以上还在继续依赖排炭的植物材料和糞制燃料来满足做饭的能源需要。“全球缺乏清洁厨用设施的人口中,一多半生活在印度、中国和孟加拉。在此,作为缺乏途径获得清洁厨用燃料人口最多的国家,印度高居名单榜首,” 联合国工业发展组织发表的名为“全人类可持续能源”的报告这样说。

译者:ken
外文:http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/environment/developmental-issues/Over-2/3rd-Indian-population-still-rely-on-dung-based-fuel-UN/articleshow/37450952.cms

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Over 2/3rd Indian population still rely on dung-based fuel: UN

联合国:三分之二以上印度人口仍然依赖糞制燃料

NEW DELHI: More than two-third of India’s one billion strong population continue to rely on carbon-emitting biomass and dung-based fuel to meet energy needs for cooking, according to a UN report.

新德里:根据一份联合国的报告,在印度10亿之巨的人口中,三分之二以上还在继续依赖排炭的植物材料和糞制燃料来满足做饭的能源需要。

“More than half of the global population lacking clean cooking facilities lives in India, China and Bangladesh. Here, India sits at the top of the list as the country with the largest population lacking access to clean fuel for cooking,” says the United Nation Industrial Development Organisation report titled “Sustainable Energy For All”.

“全球缺乏清洁厨用设施的人口中,一多半生活在印度、中国和孟加拉。在此,作为缺乏途径获得清洁厨用燃料人口最多的国家,印度高居名单榜首,” 联合国工业发展组织发表的名为“全人类可持续能源”的报告这样说。

It says that India faces a significant challenge in providing access to adequate, affordable and clean sources of energy.

报告称,提供途径,让民众接近充裕、用得起、清洁的能源,是印度面临的一个重大挑战。

“Roughly 85 per cent of the rural households are dependent on traditional biomass fuels for their cooking energy requirements and about 45 per cent do not have access to electricity,” says the report.

“粗计85%的农村家庭还依靠传统植物材料来滿足做饭能源需要,而且有45%左右没有通上电,”报告称。

The 2011 population census of India estimates the number of rural households at 167.8 million.

2011年印度人口普查估计乡村家庭户数为1.678亿。

In many poor rural communities, where biomass remains the most practical fuel, improved cook-stove can cut back indoor smoke levels considerably, says the UN.

在许多贫困乡村群落中,植物材料仍是最实用的燃料, 而经过改善的炉灶可以大大减少室內烟雾浓度,联合国说。

“Burning solid fuels produces extremely high levels of indoor air pollution. Typically, 24 hour levels of PM 10 in a biomass-using home range from 300 to 3000 micrograms per cubic meter,” says the report.

“燃烧固体燃料在室内产生浓度极高的空气污染。通常,在燃烧植物材料的屋子里,24小时PM10浓度在每立方米300到3000毫克之间,” 报告称。

As cooking takes place every day of the year, most people using solid fuels are exposed to small smoke particles at a level many times higher than the accepted annual limits for outdoor air pollution.

由于一年中每天都要煮饭,因此大多数使用固体燃料的人们暴露在小烟雾颗粒中,其浓度比可接受的户外空气污染年度极限高许多倍。

“Thus, the health impact of burning biomass fuel is considerable, apart from being an obstacle to achieving a minimum standard of living,” it says.

“因此,燃烧植物燃料除了妨碍获得最低生活标准之外,对健康也有重大影响,”报告说。

The report suggests that improved cook-stoves can cut back indoor smoke levels.

报告认为改进后的炉灶能降低室内烟雾浓度。

“These stoves reduce a family’s exposure to harmful pollutants by optimising combustion, venting smoke through a flue and chimney and in some cases, reducing cooking time,” it says.

“利用充分燃烧、烟道烟囱排烟、有时是缩短烧煮时间,这种炉灶减少了家庭人员与有害污染物的接触,”报告又说。

The UN also says that often, across the country a large number of families who breathe polluted air inside their homes do not have access to clean drinking water and poor sanitation facilities.

联合国还说,往往是,遍布全国大量在屋中呼吸污染空气的家庭,也没法获得清洁饮用水或者简陋的卫生设备。

以下为评论:

indian (Hyderabad)

Don’t know where these statistics came from. People from village used wood waste and other agriculture waste as firewood. As I’m from a village. UN gets strange statistics. And their so-called modern fuels (mostly fossil fuels) emanate more pollution in to the atmosphere in the process of extraction, process and usage than dung patties. One thing must be addressed is dung patties can be almost smoke less if you properly prepare fire place (design of fire place).

不知道这些统计数据是哪里来的。农村人用废木料和其它农业废料作为柴火。我就来自农村。联合国得到的统计数据很奇怪。並且它们所谓的现代燃料(大多为矿物燃料)在采集、加工和使用过程中,向大气中排放的污染比糞饼更多。必须强调的一点是,如果正确备制火灶(设计火灶),糞饼几乎可以不出烟。

SANJEEV KUMAR (Unknown)

Poor villagers have not money to buy other sources. Dung like sources are available easily and freely. Illiteracy is other factor. They don’t know what is global warming and what is pollution.

穷困村民没钱买其它资源。糞便这样的资源容易得到並且不要钱。没文化是另外一个因素。他们不知道什么是全球变暖,也不知道什么是污染。

Monkey Singh (Noida)

Set up community bio gas plants yaar. These villagers themselves can come and bring the required dung from their homes to refuel the plants.

设立小区沼气工厂。这些村民可以从家中带来所需糞便给工厂加料。

Hemant Tokas (Unknown)

It is good for economy and for environment as well. Start using this as fuel when it burns it kills dangerous mosquitos and bacteria. Also cleans environment as human waste is dumped back in rivers and oceans which in turn comes back to your taps at least this way dumping problem is solved…!!!

这对经济和环境都有好处。要开始用这作燃料,因为它燃烧时杀死有危害的蚊子和细菌。同时还清洁了环境,因为人类排泄物被倒入河流、海洋,又反回到自来水笼头,这样至少解决了乱倒糞便的问题…!!!

mumbaikar ()

The biggest problem in india is uncontrolled rise in population. Poor people in india cannot produce money they can only produce children. What can the government do?

印度最大问题是没有控制的人口增长。印度穷人不会生财只会生仔。政府能做什么?

Monkey Singh (Noida) replies to mumbaikar

Catch one crore slum dwellers from Delhi and Bombay and send them to Iraq. They should be made the fight ISIS with bare hands.

在德里和孟买贫民窟抓上1千万人派往伊拉克。要让他们与ISIS徒手肉博。

Satya (Online)

well that is not the only source, but is the most affordable and manageable source for most.

嗯,那不是唯一资源,可对大多人来说,这是最花得起又最好摆弄的资源。

Abhineet Vyas (Hyderabad)

That’s a good news! Imagine if all of them will start using LPG, we will run out of source very quickly.

好消息!设想如果他们全部开始用液化气,我们会很快没资源用了。

Hemant Tokas (Unknown) replies to Abhineet Vyas

More over will not rely on other gulf countries and our own Mr Reliance for fuel !!!

还有,我们将不依赖其它海湾国家,而是依赖“可靠先生”获得燃料!!!

Hindu ()

Highly unrealistic conclusion. Many villages have LPG cylinder connection.

很不切实际的结论。许多村子有液化气瓶管道。

bonnymoraes (goa)

In other words are we still living in cowdung age?

换句话说,我们还生活在牛糞时代吗?

sunil banathia (Location) replies to bonnymoraes

And we may again fully have to go back to.. it’s cheap and good fuel source provided we do something on smoke. Also, Biogas produced from Dung is cleas doesn’t cause any smoke as well. Natural gas is going down fast and rates are sky high.

我们完全有可能不得不回去…如果我们在烟雾问题上做些工作,那它就是又好又便宜的燃料来源。同时,糞便产生的沼气干净,一点也不出烟。天然气很快地少下去,价钱又高得冲天。

Suresh Sadashiv Hattangadi (Unknown)

Cow dung wards off mosquitoes.This I have experienced first hand while staying in a village.Villagers add water to cow dung and spread it on the floor.There were no mosquitoes or mosquito bites.Westerners must do more research to prove villagers are wrong.

牛糞能驱赶蚊子。我在一个村子里住时亲身体验过。村民们在牛糞中加水,撒滿一地。没蚊子来也没叮着。要证明村民不对, 西方人还必须做更多研究。

dr.chinna (Pune)

Dung-based fuel is environmentally and green fuel compared to Nuclear energy. India only has to make it sophisticated. That will also save cost of LPG.

与原子能相比,糞制燃料环保绿色。印度只需把它完善。这还会省下液化气费用。

Chaipav (guess) replies to dr.chinna

I think the article is kind of disagreeing that. Do you have any links to prove the same.

我觉得这文章象是不同意这种看法。你有什么出处加以证明吗。

dr.chinna replies to Chaipav

Yes, cow-dung is source of green energy and even is been studied for fuel cells recently. Cow-dung has 40-50% methane, and produces Biogas that can be used for cooking, easy to recycle waste!!! Only thing is instead of making cakes, India needs to put up cow-dung Biogas for piped gas so as to it sophisticated. India has to exploit its own energy sources, we don’t kill cows, you will find cow-dung everywhere even on streets & highways.

有,牛糞是绿色能源,最近甚至还被用来研制燃料电池。牛糞含40~50%甲烷,产生可厨用沼气,方便回收利用废物!!!唯一要做的是,印度需将牛糞沼气搞成管导气取代制饼,在技术上成熟。印度必须利用自己的能源资源,我们不杀牛,你在哪儿都能找到牛糞,甚至大街上或公路上。

友荐云推荐
  1. indian (Hyderabad)Don’t know where these statistics came from. People from village used wood waste and other agriculture waste as firewood. As I’m from a village. UN gets strange statistics. And their so-called modern fuels (mostly fossil fuels) emanate more pollution in to the atmosphere in the process of extraction, process and usage than dung patties. One thing must be addressed is dung patties can be almost smoke less if you properly prepare fire place (design of fire place).不知道这些统计数据是哪里来的。农村人用废木料和其它农业废料作为柴火。我就来自农村。联合国得到的统计数据很奇怪。並且它们所谓的现代燃料(大多为矿物燃料)在采集、加工和使用过程中,向大气中排放的污染比糞饼更多。必须强调的一点是,如果正确备制火灶(设计火灶),糞饼几乎可以不出烟。你看我说粪饼是绿色,环保,节能的皿煮超级大国的知名产品吧。。。

    • 晕……一辆汽车,在其生产的各个环节,产生的各种污染恐怕已经超过一户农民一辈子的污染排放吧。没有买卖,没有杀戮(污染)……当你购买了一辆汽车,你就已经支持了各种污染吧!

    • 很多人以为中国古代只用柴枝和煤炭做燃料,其实用牛粪羊粪做燃料也有好几千年历史,直到今天在藏民、新疆南部、四川某些农村依然保留这些习惯,《舌尖上的中国》第一季就有提到过藏民用牛粪做燃料,只不过现在农村更多的改为更加环保高效的沼气池。经过中美科学家研究,牛粪浑身是宝,不仅可作为肥料,生物燃料,还可以用来发电,国内有些企业专门生产牛粪压块出售给边民。牛粪作为生物燃料而言,有特殊优势,就是它是可再生,环保用之不竭,1989年美国加利福尼亚州还专门兴建了一个以牛粪为燃料的发电厂,电厂附近有一个巨型的养牛场,每天排泄的牛粪堆积如山,美国能源公司于是想到利用牛粪燃烧发电。这家牛粪发电厂每小时燃烧40吨牛粪,可发出1.6万千瓦的电力。每年可获得800万美元,5年多就能回收4600万美元的投资。用牛粪发电,每千瓦小时的成本才7美分。除生产电力外,每天排出的约160吨灰渣,可卖给公路建设部门用于铺设路基,有的用作农田的肥料,有的还可作污水吸附剂。用牛粪作燃料发电,每年相当于节省了约30万桶石油 。所以不要看不起粪便,这世界只有放错位置的资源,没有垃圾。

  2. Monkey Singh (Noida) replies to mumbaikarCatch one crore slum dwellers from Delhi and Bombay and send them to Iraq. They should be made the fight ISIS with bare hands.在德里和孟买贫民窟抓上1千万人派往伊拉克。要让他们与ISIS徒手肉博。只消一战ISIS战士以后就不用便便完了自己处理菊花了。。。

  3. Suresh Sadashiv Hattangadi (Unknown)Cow dung wards off mosquitoes.This I have experienced first hand while staying in a village.Villagers add water to cow dung and spread it on the floor.There were no mosquitoes or mosquito bites.Westerners must do more research to prove villagers are wrong.牛糞能驱赶蚊子。我在一个村子里住时亲身体验过。村民们在牛糞中加水,撒滿一地。没蚊子来也没叮着。要证明村民不对, 西方人还必须做更多研究。果然是全能型产品。。。还有驱蚊功能呢。。。

  4. Suresh Sadashiv Hattangadi (Unknown)Cow dung wards off mosquitoes.This I have experienced first hand while staying in a village.Villagers add water to cow dung and spread it on the floor.There were no mosquitoes or mosquito bites.Westerners must do more research to prove villagers are wrong.牛糞能驱赶蚊子。我在一个村子里住时亲身体验过。村民们在牛糞中加水,撒滿一地。没蚊子来也没叮着。要证明村民不对, 西方人还必须做更多研究。果然是全能型产品。。。还有驱蚊功能呢。。。邦臣,雷达啥的在印度都得变浮云啊。。。

  5. 其实我觉得在农村地区,使用生物制沼气燃料完全比使用液化石油气,天然气或者煤更加合理和高效。提高资源使得使用效率,而且更加经济实惠,太阳能风能也不能代替明火炉灶,天然气作为石化材料感觉更加不环保——把千万年前封存的二氧化碳又释放出来了。

    • 三锅的土地都是地主的,上面耕种的农民伯伯大都佃农。地主连水利灌溉都没让休呢,会闲着没事让佃农在自己地里挖坑建沼气池么?

    • 三锅的土地都是地主的,而耕种的农民伯伯大都佃农。地主连水利灌溉都没让修呢,难道还会闲着没事让佃农在自己地里挖坑建沼气池么?

    • 咱中国农村地区用牛粪羊粪做燃料也有几千年历史,但现在是越来越多现代化沼气池,只剩藏区和新疆南部、偏远农村还在用牛粪羊粪做燃料,用这种生物燃料,确实要比化石能源来得更环保高效方便,就地取材,也不愁会用完。中印国情很不一样,中国早已经不是地主社会,不仅有越来越富裕的生活,还有集中力量办大事的方便,有更多人关心贫困农村问题,更多兴建沼气池。但印度还处于旧社会阴影里,大量土地是地主的,或叫农场主,大多数是佃农,基础设施严重匮乏,比起用机器,他们倒宁愿用便宜的人力。但印度和中国一样,很早就开始沼气技术研究,取得相当成就,并且各有优势,也曾经有过大型沼气工程处理禽畜粪便应用示范工程,但农村推广使用沼气池方面远没有中国这么快。

    • 支持,农村地区用植物燃料并不意味着落后,这些生物燃料是农村地区最经济的能源,而且可再生,比起化石能源来说更环保。

    • 支持,农村地区用植物燃料并不意味着落后,这些生物燃料是农村地区最经济的能源,而且可再生,比起化石能源来说更环保。

  6. 初看图片还以为三哥在养殖海龟呢,细看之,方知此物乃是三哥所说的“绿色能源”哈,原来三哥也有自已的制造业,而且是如此的高尚和可持续,三哥的回复铿锵有力,如果不将粪便回收利用,恐怕“强奸之都”将被“粪便之都”所取代,由此可见,三哥不仅是“能源储备”大国,而且是“能源制造业”大国。印度必胜亚克西!

    • 不要太小看阿三,咱中国在藏区和新疆南部、四川某些农村也还保留烧牛粪的,这种确实是绿色能源,以粪便为原料的沼气、生物柴油等生物燃料,在未来大有前途,像咱们中国地域辽阔,人口众多,化石能源有限,而生物质能丰富,能源需求日益上升,生物燃料本身有特殊优势,就是它可再生,大力发展生物燃料是大势所趋,欧美日等国很早就开始生物燃料的研究,还兴建一些以粪便燃料的发电厂,中国对生物燃料的研究也是相当早,在农村推广使用沼气池,国内有专门公司把牛粪压块出售,在海南岛有种植可生产生物柴油的植物。

      • 我没有小看阿三的“绿色能源”,而是真诚的给予了“高尚的、可持续性的”积极评价,这类“能源”对偏远地区的作用和帮助也是积极的、不可替代的。但做为一个大国,仅有这类小农经济的作用,是远远不鸲的——–。总之,谢谢你的善意批评和指正!!

    • 牛粪晒干了就跟甘草做的饼一样,烧起来也没有煤炭耐烧,跟烧纸团一样,着了后贼拉拉热一阵,然后就木有鸟。。。。。。

    • 在新疆的公路上,你会时不时看到一团一团的干草,开始我还有点郁闷,这都嘛玩意儿啊。后来才意识到,其实都是干了的驴屎羊屎。粪便已经干了被风吹走了,剩下一团一团还没完全消化的草在马路上。。。。。。

  7. 全球缺乏清洁厨用设施的人口中,一多半生活在印度、中国和孟加拉。=================================懒得解释。谁去统计的。

  8. 这些能上网的阿三一听到人说印度落后了,就不高兴了开始骂国家骂政府,觉得自己是聪明的好人,能高穷人一等。最后再来秀智商嘴上空谈,老子什么都懂。印度算个屁

  9. 印度农村普片使用粪饼做燃料,侧面说明印度农村农业是一种几千年的原生态,结合其农村的生产关系,产出。说明其农业生产力是极其低下原始的。有又证明了印度社会结构的原始和社会制度的落后。在gdp过万亿的国家制度里是最变态最反动的,畸形的,不可逆的,愚昧的,野蛮的,落后的,最坏的,。。。。。。。。。。。。的,。。。。。。。。。。。。。。

  10. 存在即合理,印度有免费的丰富的牛粪能源,极大的减少了化石能源的消耗,其他地方的人类应该感激阿三们

      • 所有的资本主义国家都是这个尿性吧。都是些大大小小白垩纪的恐龙。一些小的资本主义国家现在不侵略只不过是过头太小而言,长大了迟早吃人!普通百姓过着极度贫困的日子还是让人同情的。居高位者利欲熏心其心可诛!

  11. 三哥:报告长官,一个好消息一个坏消息。长官:先说坏消息。三哥:坏消息是中国军队走了,但粮食没了,我们以后只能吃牛粪了。长官:好消息呢。三哥:牛粪有的是